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2020 Women's Vote Centennial

The 19th Amendment: Who was Excluded?

Who was excluded?: Women's Suffrage

Native American women standing together looking at the camera. Courtesy Library of Congress. CC0
Native American women did not become citizens (and eligible to vote) until 1924 - four years after the ratification of the 19th amendment.

Courtesy of the Library of Congress. Public domain.

People with marginalized identities were often excluded from the women’s suffrage movement. After the passage of the 19th Amendment in 1920, women of color were often kept from the polls. African American women faced racial discrimination and were discouraged from voting through intimidation and fear.

Native American women were not considered US citizens until 1924. Other women could vote after 1920, yet Native American women had to wait another four years until granted citizenship.

Women living in the US territories faced similar challenges. The people of American Samoa, for example, cannot take part in national elections due to their status. Those born in American Samoa are considered US nationals, not citizens. As a result, they do not share the same suffrage rights as people born in the continental US.

The struggle of these women reveals the complexity of the quest for suffrage then and now.

Source: National Park Service 

Other Important Resources

2020 Women's Vote Centennial Initiative

The mission of the 2020 Women's Vote Centennial Initiative (WVCI) is to serve as a central organizing and information-sharing entity for programs, projects, and activities that commemorate the 100th anniversary of the 19th Amendment, educate the public on the legal and social advances resulting from the amendment, and stimulate dialogue to address the ongoing fight for women's rights. For more information please visit the WVCI website. 

Site created and maintained by Brittnee Fisher. Pages will be added and maintained throughout 2020.
Maintenance will cease at the end of 2020 but this site will remain accessible.